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    李賀的詩

    李賀(790~816) ,中國唐代詩人。字長吉。福昌(今河南洛陽宜陽縣)人。祖籍隴西,自稱“隴西長吉”。家居福昌昌谷,后世因稱他為李昌谷。李賀為唐宗室鄭王李亮的后裔,但家已沒落。他“細瘦通眉,長指爪”,童年即能詞章,15、16歲時,已以工樂府詩與先輩李益齊名。元和三、四年間(808~809),韓愈在洛陽,李賀往謁。據說,韓愈與皇甫湜曾一同回訪,賀寫了有名的《高軒過》詩。李賀父名晉肅,“晉”、“進”同音,與李賀爭名的人,就說他應避父諱不舉進士,韓愈作《諱辨》鼓勵李賀應試,無奈“闔扇未開逢猰犬,那知堅都相草草”,禮部官員昏庸草率,李賀雖應舉赴京、卻未能應試,遭饞落第。后來做了三年奉禮郎,郁郁不平。因仕途失意,就把全部精力用在寫詩上。在京時,居崇義里,與王參元、楊敬之、權璩、崔植等為密友,常偕同出游,一小奴騎驢相隨,背一破錦囊。李賀得有詩句,即寫投囊中,歸家后足成完篇。母鄭夫人常說“是兒要當嘔出心乃已爾”。后辭官歸昌谷,又至潞州(今山西長治)依張徹一個時期。一生體弱多病,27歲逝世。

    李賀是中唐的浪漫主義詩人,又是中唐到晚唐詩風轉變期的一個代表者。他所寫的詩大多是慨嘆生不逢時和內心苦悶,抒發對理想、抱負的追求;對當時藩鎮割據、宦官專權和人民所受的殘酷剝削都有所反映。他喜歡在神話故事、鬼魅世界里馳騁,以其大膽、詭異的想象力,構造出波譎云詭、迷離惝恍的藝術境界,抒發好景不長、時光易逝的感傷情緒,《文獻通考》中說:“宋景文諸公在館,嘗評唐人詩云:‘太白仙才,長吉鬼才。’”《歲寒堂詩話》中說:“李賀有太白之語,而無太白之才。”
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